The history of VVD
“Dvory nad Žitavou” is one of the oldest villages in “Nové Zámky” district in the Nitra Region of southwest Slovakia. The territory within the village was famous for merchant stone-paved roads especially in times of the Roman Empire when the famous “Via Romana” Roman road led through the village, which later was called Via Bohemica. Later other public roads were joined from the surrounding areas of rivers “Váh” and “Hron” which were mainly used to transport salt from the polish “Wieliczka” salt mine to “Kakath” settlement called in middle ages where today’s “Štúrovo” is situated opposite the Hungarian city of Esztergom. It is also one of the reasons why it was later called the salt road “Via Salina”.
Although the exact date of municipality establishment is unknown the first written historical record dated 1075 mentions the settlement and its inhabitants titled as “VILLA HUDVORDIENSIUM SUPER AQUAM SITOUA“ which means the settlement of serfs upon the river „Žitava“. Serfs were people who were bound to the manor or royal mansion and did all the work on the manor farm. The village inherited its name „Dvory“ (in Slovak language from the word „Dvorník“ by the serfs who served the monarch in the royal mansions. There were also many vintners and wine makers among the serfs called „vinitory“ (in latin – wine maker) who served the royal family and supplied the royal court and royal mansions with grape and mainly wine. On March the 29th 1429 the village was transformed to a market town by the king Sigismund of Luxemburg of whom later the village was also given the right to execute. This transformation brought expansion and prosperity to the town which led to the creation of its own district with 23 villages and 11 settlements. Rather sad period follwed when during the Turkish domination in 1572 and 1685 the town was permanetly occupied.
The biggest expansion in wine making and viticulture was recored during the reign of Maria Theresa, who relieved the village from paying high taxes and also contributed to new vineyards as well. The successor her son Joseph the II officially proclaimed the vineyard hill, which belongs to the village, as a place suitable for vine growing. In honour of this event a chapel of saint Urban was sanctified which is situated and is present even today right on the hill. There were other vineyard administrative buildings next to the chapel where the vineyard keeper and his family resided and maintained the time of harvest and protected the yard against thieves.
On May the 25th huge celebrations took place when parades started in the centre of the village at the church with the priest ahead and ended on the vineyard hill with holy communium to pray for healthy harvest. The vineyard hill was a great place for relaxation where farmers with friends used to spend their free time under shelters drinking and tasting local specialities. The year of 1886 was marked as the most disasterous one, since phylloxera and mildew distroyed the whole vineyard. It caused a huge recession in wine making until 1950 when the old vineyards were plowed as part of establishing peasant cooperatives and new vineyard ownerships. New vineyards were planted only 21 years later in 1971 and 1972 when 85 hectares of land was used. New and refurbished wine cellars with the capacity of 4000 hectoliters of wine produced and sold under own registered brand ÉÓS were just finished in 1986. During the last 50 years the Wine-growing cooperative winery has undergone several changes in title and company structure as well from the used to be JRD AURORA through ZDRUŽENIE AGROPODNIKATELOV until today’s independent Wine-growing cooperative winery that has set off for a modern production of quality wines and have already discovered their permanent consumers.